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Appendix

Appendix

APPENDIX I List of algae often found in lakes or referred to in this book* PROCARYOTA 1. Cyanophyta Chroococcales (solitary cells, no heterocysw): Aph...

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APPENDIX I List of algae often found in lakes or referred to in this book* PROCARYOTA 1. Cyanophyta Chroococcales (solitary cells, no heterocysw): Aphanocapsa, Chroococcus, Coelosphaeriurn, Gloeocapsa, Holopedia, Microcystis (= Anacystis), Synechococcus Hormogonales (= Oscillatoriales; filamentous, heterocysts sometimes present) Nostocinales (filaments simple): e.g., Arrabaena, Aphanizornenon, Lyngbya, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phorrnidiurn, Plectonerna Stigonematinales (filaments heterotrichous, with connecting pits): e.g. Stigonerna EUCARYOTA

I. Chrysophyta e.g. Chrysomonadales (unicellular or colonial flagellates): Mallornonas, Ochrornonas, Synum, Uroglena 11. Xanthophyta e.g. Heterococcales (unicellular or colonial with rigid cell-wall): Monodus 111. Haptophyta e.g. Prymnesiales (unicellular flagellates with a haptomena and flagella): Pryrnnesium IV. Bacillariophyta (unicellular or colonial algae; cell wall of two distinct halves composed of silicon) Centrobacillariophyceae (Centrales): Cyclotella, Melosira, Sceletonema, Stephanodiscus, Thalassiosira Pennatibacillariophyceae (Pennales): Asterionella, Diatorna, Fragilaria, Synedra, Tabellaria, Gornphonerna, Navicula, Nitzschia, Phaeodactylurn V. Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae Volvocales (flagellates green): Chlarnydornonos, Eudorina, Goniurn, Phacotus, Voluox Chlorococcales: Ankistrodesrnus, Chlorella, Chlorococcurn, Coelastrurn, Dictyosphaeriurn, Oocystis, Pediastrurn, Scenedesrnus, Tetraedon Ulotrichales: Stichococcus, Ulothrix Zy gnemaphyceae Desmidiales: Closteriurn, Cosrnarium, Desrnidiurn, Staurastrum, Xanthidium VI. Euglenophyta Euglenales: Euglena, Phacus VII. Dinophyta Dy nophy ceae : A m p h id iniurn, Ceratiurn, Gy rnnod iniu rn, Perid iniu rn VIII. Cryptophyta Cryptomonadales : Ch roornonas, Cryp to rnonas IX. Rhodophyta Bangiales: Bangia, Porphyridiurn *From: Round, F.E., 1973. The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold, London, 2nd ed., 278 PP

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455 APPENDIX I1 Geological time-scale Era

Period

Epoch

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Holocene (Recent)* Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Tertiary

Mesozoic

Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic

Paleozoic

Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian

Proterozoic

Precambrian

Millions of years ago (approx.)

0.01 2 -

10 27

38 55

65-70

130 180 225

2 60

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

340 400 430 480 570

Upper Middle Lower

1900

2 700 3 500

*Subdivided in the geologic climate units: Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal and Subatlantic.

APPENDIX I11 Photosynthetic and respiratory or carbon cycles (not all cycles occur in all organisms; for further explanation see Chapters . pathways _ 4 , 6 and 16)

I

I

CARBOtifDRATES

I

r?w GLUCOSE

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