Naked and Afraid - Season 8 (2017) | New Zealand | Girls Bravo

Effects of different irrigation methods on micro-environments and root distribution in winter wheat fields

Effects of different irrigation methods on micro-environments and root distribution in winter wheat fields

Journal of Integrative Agriculture 2015, 14(8): 1658–1672 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect RESEARCH ARTICLE Effects of diff...

816KB Sizes 0 Downloads 8 Views

Recommend Documents

Effects of supplemental irrigation with micro-sprinkling hoses on water distribution in soil and grain yield of winter wheat
•Micro-sprinkling hose (H) for wheat field supplemental irrigation (SI) was invented.•Distribution uniformity of water (

The Equilibrium and Growth Stability of Winter Wheat Root and Shoot Under Different Soil Water Conditions
The equilibrium between root, shoot and growth stability under different soil water conditions were investigated in a tu

Modifications of Root Geometry in Winter Wheat by Phosphorus Deprivation
The effects of phosphorus (P) deprivation on root geometry in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied. In the firs

Effects of potassium fertilization on winter wheat under different production practices in the North China Plain
Haplic Luvisols with low to medium grade of potassium occur in major agricultural regions of north China. Moreover, unba

Effects of irrigation on water balance, yield and WUE of winter wheat in the North China Plain
Limited precipitation restricts yield of winter wheat grown in the North China Plain (NCP). Irrigation experiments were

Incorporating root distribution factor to evaluate soil water status for winter wheat
•RASW is easily calculated but takes the soil water availability to crops equally.•Relative root length abundance factor

Effects of different irrigation and nitrogen regimes on root growth and its correlation with above-ground plant parts in high-yielding wheat under field conditions
•Irrigation and nitrogen fertilization affect root growth and grain yield in winter wheat.•Grain yield is positively cor

Winter wheat cultivars and nitrogen (N) fertilization—Effects on root growth, N uptake efficiency and N use efficiency
•N fertilization affected root density in layers below 0.5 m, but not root depth.•Root density increased at least up to

Responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) evapotranspiration and yield to sprinkler irrigation regimes
The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the main productive regions for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer mai

Effects of tillage practices on water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat under different soil moisture conditions
•Top soil that is too loose or too tight led to more water consumption from the topsoil layers.•Subsoiling increased whe

Journal of Integrative Agriculture 2015, 14(8): 1658–1672

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effects of different irrigation methods on micro-environments and           LÜ Guo-hua1, SONG Ji-qing1, BAI Wen-bo1, WU Yong-feng1, LIU Yuan1, KANG Yao-hu2 1

                   !  "   # !#"  $ #  $"$ # #  % & '***+'-./.  2        #   /#     -      3        9 # /  /  $"  % & '**'*'-./. 

Abstract                                !                       "# $       $                           %&&'(%&&) %&&)(%&&*    "        +, !  -,    -.,          "   !          /              

 

 "         !           

 " #        +, 

           !    "                      -., 

    -, +,        0 "#                  "    

           $      "# !      

     

    

                  " Keywords1               !                winter wheat

1. Introduction

467%&48# 6/  %&48 9:;  1<)=4&)%4&=&&62 1  > " ? @    B#/; D  1 <)=4&)%4&=&&6 2 1 ! > " " F%&46@##-"# "G29 "  14&"4&4=J-%&*6K44*48=&*%')

2                   

            3    + !#.4**%"                   

                       " -            5  

  !                  

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

                              M    4*'*?N  B  4**8"O

   B   4*=4       !        "         !       "-                          " #                               "              

         46 P   +  4*=)"       

      P Q #.4**6              M 4**)  0       ",                         +  9%&&K?+ U   /  %&&="- 

                                   "B   + 4**%    

           

$         [email protected]  5H"    ##         

 "B #.4*'=                                    "                  !         root degeneration. ,                      "/ #.4*=&        5              $!   !"/    5                 B #.4*6'"  7 !  + 4**&             5/         

 " X  

            + 5  M 4*6K                 

      "         !           

                    " ,                      " ! #.4**69 B %&&= @  #.%&&*                  !        "Y          !         - 

1659

%&&="-                   "P0                                         4*'6"P 

Z #.4**'  #.%&&%                

       !                

 "                3                            "    !

          +, !      !   -,    -.,       9[#.%&4&",                                     

    !                           U           "  ,    !                    

 " U           

      

                 "#  !                          

    

         X    "                "

     2.1. Precipitation and irrigation G     U    4'8      .#-    %8*.#- %&&) %&&*    P"4", %&&)    4&%"K

   %4                   ", %&&*     *)"8

 4K            X   %&8.#-       %K*.#-",     4'8 %8*.#-          %&&*   4*"[email protected]       %&&)4'"'[email protected]P"4?          %&&* 6*"*\  

  %&&)'4"K\"         %&&)   %&&*"       

        U     %&&)4''.#- %&&*4'8.#-"              

1660

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

60 2009P

2008AT

2009AT

25

40

20

30

15

20

10

10

5

0 174

Air temperature (°C)

Precipitation (mm)

50

30 2008P

0 184

194

204 214 Days after sowing (d)

224

234

244

Fig. 1 G        %&&) %&&*    "%&&)G   %&&)?%&&*G    %&&*?%&&)#     %&&)?%&&*#     %&&*"

and growing season. There were two and three irrigations  +,P"%#   -,P"%+ %%  8K -., %&&)P"%@ %&&*P"%.

"      %&&* %8%"'

           4%4"K

   %&&)"                 %&&*",                   %&&) %&&*"

    +       $              %& "

    !      4"4& ]K.                   !         

   4"%& ]K      "            

           - %&&=" #      !       



 4"K6 ]K +,4"%= ]K -,  4"%% ]K -.,"!    +,                      "  ,   +, 

                         !  "G           -,                    !  !                 4*)K?  5!#.4*)8?# 4*)="  

$       $         % % m]%     "

P    -., 

   

            

        "

  P"K       -MG  %&8& =& *&       %&&)$    ",       4''.#-     %%K.#-".      -MG     -,  -., 

          ]KK&               "#                          "         5    "  +, 

  -MG         

 

    %&8 %%8.#-"             "   -MG     +, 

            "#      -MG %& 8&        -., 

     -, +, 

 P"K#+"         +, 

  =&   " -MG  %&8&=& *&   %&&*    P"8",    4'8.#-  

  %%).#-".      -MG       -., 

        ]K&& "  

 -MG     

     

$   ",  -, +, 

 -MG X           %&8& 

1661

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

A

140 2008

Irrigation quota (mm)

120

2009 100

Border irrigation (BI)

80 60 40 20 0 80174

Irrigation quota (mm)

B

184

194

204

214

224

234

2008

70

2009

60

Sprinkler irrigation (SI)

50 40 30 20 10 60

Irrigation quota (mm)

0 C

50

194

214

234

2008 40

Surface drip irrigation (SDI)

30 20 10 0

Irrigation quota (mm)

D

70 60 2009

50

Surface drip irrigation (SDI)

40 30 20 10 0 174

184

194

204

214

224

234

244

Days after sowing (d)

Fig. 2,  0         %&&) %&&*    "#    %&&)  %&&*"+ !   %&&) %&&*"@    %&&)".    %&&*"

=&  "  0    -,



   -MG     +, 

    *&  . #     -MG       %&&)" #                  

     0   -,



  -MG          $   "        

      0  -.,        -MG        "   -MG             "

1662

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

Days after sowing (d) 174 0

184

194

204

214

224

234

244

-217.7

-483.6

-479.8

-488.6

-512.6

204

214

224

234

244

204

214

224

234

244

A

–100 –200 –300 –400 –500

BI SI SDI 20 cm

–600 –700 0 B

-258.0

-206.4

–100 –200 –300

Soil matric potential (cm)

–400 –500

BI SI SDI

–600

40 cm

–700 0

174C

184

194

–100 –200 –300 –400 –500

BI SI SDI

–600

60 cm

–700 0 174D

184

194

–100 –200 –300 –400 –500 –600

BI SI SDI 90 cm

–700

Fig. 3ƒ            %&8&=& *&      %&&)             

           "

    #   P"6        

&(8&                     &") %*"%[email protected]  %&&)  &"4 K4"*[email protected] %&&*"# 8&(4&&  

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

1663

Days after sowing (d) 174 A

184

194

205

215

226

236

194

205

215

226

236

194

205

215

226

236

194

205

215

226

236

0

–100 –200 –300 –400

BI SI SDI

–500

20 cm

–600 0 B 174

184

–100 –200 –300 BI SI SDI

Soil matric potential (cm)

–400 –500

40 cm –600 0 C –100

174

184

–200 –300 –400 BI SI SDI

–500 –600 –700 –800 0 D

60 cm

174

184

–100 –200 –300 BI –400

SI SDI

–500 90 cm –600

Fig. 4ƒ            %&8&=& *&      %&&*             

           "

         )  [email protected] %&&)  4& %[email protected] %&&*" , %&&)            

      "P 4'& 4)&.#-

             )[email protected]        "       0!           ",    

1664

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

Fig. 5                     %&&)#@ %&&*.P"

           9#, !      ",     

    !          "                                      48  [email protected]

            " , %&&*              +, 

  4*"[email protected]  4)"[email protected]   -, 4="*[email protected]  -., 

 "          +, 

                        "   

         

           

          %&&)"D    2 4*)*          

       !         "      !            [email protected]    

            "   

               

     

 X     "

     +  $         

       "P"=#+                    "-    /                   "      /                        GP"=@. B P"=2P"+  & 8&      /       8& !]4"     

  / !   "# 8&(=&      /  %&

8& !]4       +,



      "

1665

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

Soil available N (mg kg–1)

A

Depth (cm)

0

0

20

40

60

80

20

40

40

80

80

100

100 BI SI SDI Initial distribution

140

Soil available P (mg kg–1)

C

Depth (cm)

0

5

10

15

20

80

BI SI SDI Initial distribution

0

20

40

40

60

2008

80

100

100 BI SI SDI Initial distribution

140 160

5

10

15

60

80

120

Soil available P (mg kg–1)

D 25

20

20

25

2009

BI SI SDI Initial distribution

120 140 160

Soil available K (mg kg–1)

E 20

70

120

170

0

F 20 0

20

20

40

40 2008

60

80

80

100

100

160

60

2009

140

0

140

40

120

0

120

20

160

160

60

0

60

2008

120

Depth (cm)

0

20

60

Soil available N (mg kg–1)

B

BI SI SDI Initial distribution

120 140

Soil available K (mg kg–1) 70

120

170

2009

BI SI SDI Initial distribution

160

Fig. 6 M        /G B                            "# +    /     %&&) %&&*"@ .    G      %&&) %&&*"2 P    B     %&&) %&&*"

1666

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

     /             %&&)P"=#        / 

  %&&*                 "-    G    &(%&         P"=@."                 

 "          



      B %&&) %&&*P"=2 P"    3                 "

! "       P"'#                  

  %&&)         $      )*"6\    +, 

  )*"'\    -, 

  )*"'\  -., 

 "  

      %&&)"P    

A

              "     %&&*                   %&8 %%).#-" 

      "    

   -., 

  )6"=\       )&"%\  -, '%"'\ 

+, 

 -Š&"&6" , %&&)           *&\    

     $    ", %&&*     



 "G                

     + 5  M 4*6K"             

     -., -, 

 "

2.7. Root distribution P")#+@ .        

100 90

Relative humidity (%)

80 70 60 50 40

BI

30

SI

20

SDI

10

Standard weather station

0 B

100 174

184

194

204

214

224

234

244

224

234

244

90 Relative humidity (%)

80 70 60 50 40 30

BI SI SDI Standard weather station

20 10 0 174

184

194

204

214

Days after sowing (d)

Fig. 7ƒ                          %&&) # %&&*+"

1667

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

   

 P")#"+ U     &(%&  9.     -.,



 -Š&"&6   -, +, 

 

   U   X         %&&)"+                '&        

Root length density (cm cm–3) A

0

1

2

3

4

0

5

Root length density (cm cm–3) 6

E

0

20 Depth (cm) B

3

4

5

SI SDI

SDI 60 Turning-green stage (2008, 160 DAS)

80

100

100

0

F 0

20

20

Turning-green stage (2009, 162 DAS)

Depth (cm)

BI 40

Depth (cm)

C

Depth (cm)

BI

40

SI

Jointing stage (2008, 188 DAS)

80

100

100

0

G 0

20

20 BI

40

SI SDI

60

Flowering stage (2008, 212 DAS)

40 60 80 100

0

H 0

20

20

60 80 100

BI SI SDI

Grain-filling stage (2008, 238 DAS)

Jointing stage (2009, 190 DAS)

BI SI

100

40

SDI

60

60

80

D

SI SDI

80

6

BI 40

SI

60 80

2

20 BI

40

1

0

40

SDI

Flowering stage (2009, 217 DAS)

BI SI SDI

60 80 100

Grain-filling stage (2009, 238 DAS)

Fig. 8             %&&) %&&*       "

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

P")+?  %&(=&      -, 

      9.?  =&(4&&  +,    9."+ X   9.      

      

        

U    "# &(%&  9.      -., 

     -, +, 

  -Š&"&6?  %&(4&&   +, 

        -, -., 

 P")@"                      %&&)   "    -MG

  !     9." 

     -., 

                           M 4**)" 

        +,  P"6#+              4*'8? B

 #. 4**K? + U    /  %&&=" #       

    



        0 " M        9.       -., 

                -MGP"6#+"#   

 9.        -.,



 ",    9.    

           0             9.

     "            %&&*    P")2"G     

     

  %&&*          %&&)"9.  X    &(%&        -., 

 -Š&"&6    -, +, 

 P");"            -MG   



  %&&*" 9. 8&(=&         -., 

           /   "      /                 three treatments.            !          !     !  ! "P"*          



 "             &F4&  8&(4&&    +, 

        -., 

 -Š&"&6"                  !     &(4&  "    

 $           ",    

            -., 

      !  " #  %&(8&            

        !          

Root weight to length ratio (mg cm–1) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0 10 20

BI SI

30 Depth (cm)

1668

SDI

40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Fig. 9                      "

      "# 8&(4&&         -., 

    !    

-, +, 

 " ,       

    !             " # !       

         "  4         

 0   +,-, -., %&&)  %&&*" #     

  0    9.       $ $      " 9.                     "  P     

  

          

   "   &"&%= &"&K6   +, 

  &"&K= &"&8K  -, 

   &"&86 &"&6K  -., 

 "      +,-, -., 

 &"&K &"&8 &"&6 "         

                 $       "

#   ,               

    "  

           !  

     "-    /     

1669

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

                  !".      

        -., 

   X   "       !            

  

          

 "     

     

  "        

                  $      "  

           

            

       "

$    %&'   P$     K  " !"9"                   %&&)  %&&*         5  2$   +    Z -   ,     ,      ;   -   /      @ #   -  5 .   +U @ K*VK=/44=V8)2?%&    "          44"[email protected]"  M        $   66&

    

K&\       ?    

       0 "       4&      

     48([email protected]"        "          %"                  $   "

&'   ( $       

       "4%       5  !     U   K      "2    ) ‘) " Z  !"7  )       K&& ! ]4 46  "+         %&      "2          

   K&& ! ]4          K&&! ]4                   "     

    +,  !  -,    -.,    

      "#                  " +,   0  =K

Gƒ@ 

)  %P

 0               

  %&&) %&&* D  %&&)

%&&*ǂ

4

Treatment

4

f & %"'8 K"K= K"*4 K"=% K")4 8"*6

+, -, -., +, -, -.,

P

 0  9.’f&‘$(a‘L% 7     a /% f& &"&%* &"*= K"*= &"&K' &"*) 8"66 &"&86 &"*= 8")= &"&K6 &"*' K"*) &"&8K &"*= 8"*% &"&6K &"*6 ="*6

P    a &"&K& &"&K' &"&8' &"&%= &"&K= &"&8*

/% &"*' &"*' &"*' &"*8 &"*' &"*8

+,   ?-, !  ?-.,   " 9.      K K?f &9.    ?L   ?a

   "

%

)  G     $   4 -   -     &(%6 -  %6(6& -  6&(4&& -  4&&(446 @  446(4=& 9   4

+.  (K 4"K* 4"6* 4"8) 4"8& 4"8)

YM !(4 )"=* ="48 6"*% ="6K K"4)

/ !(4 &"= &"8K &"K) &"K* &"4*

G !(4 4"=4 4"8 4"4K 4"% 4"&K

 '"=4 '"6K '"=% '")4 )"&=

Lr  K (K &"&=* &"&'8 &"&*8 &"4&* &"4&4

LF  K (K &"%)= &"K&) &"%*4 &"K'K &"K==

Ls  K (K &"K*6 &"K=4 &"K)= &"8*4 &"8)*

Ks  (4 4="6K 4K"44 %4"K' '"48 *"K'

+. !                 ? YM  

            

  ? /           BU     +   M  4*)%? G              Y  -

4*)%?41%"6 J     ?Lr      K  (K?Ls       K (K?LF     K (K?Ks       (4"

1670

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

      "       ) K h(4"-,        !2 )&+%,               4%&  "    U  *&V"       ) ",        $  4&

(4    @            @N    )*"=\"-.,             K&  

         U   " 2 

   %&   X   %"'9(4.       

        U              

           [email protected]     [email protected]  &()&  "  

         9 B %&&'                      2"    1 4 2’KEpan Z H“&"*Hmax H KC=0.13+1.17 % H max Z H—&"*Hmax and$˜4"'6 K KC’4"% Z 2             

?K    H    ? Hmax  $       $                ?

                  ? Hmax  0   *&      $  ?  $ is the     $" ,  -., 

              2      3  $     ",  -, 

          46   +,  

          K&"" 

    X       "      0          -, +, 

 "

4.3. Evaporation from the pan #   M #.M@ M     #      %&&K%&              

    U   

          

"G     E     &)1&& " "         

    "

4.4. Air temperature and humidity #             $

                    .  ƒ  G % N-#"  Z                            

         "       1 e(t) 8 RH (%)=100× e0(t) Z   \?et               t!G ? and e&t     t!G " #    et      1 6 et’etw]#‘G‘t]tw Z #         &"=='‘ 4&]K [email protected]]4 G 

!G    $    ?t and tw          [email protected] ? etw         tw!G      # #.4**)        1 17.27t w  = ) tw +237.3 Z   e&t 0"=         t tw.                          "   %  " e(tw) =0.6108 exp(

    -             

                                1&64&46%&8& )& "     %  "+     

              U            

    "

!   - !                  ƒ       

        "            ! %                           !  "

*  P                



  !          %& 8&=& *&  "      

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

      =&    "     

      &)1&& " "      $   "

+ (  -    4&           6 "           9.  "        "   !               "        4&&     

! 4& "-           "     U   X        "                         5 #;  *"&2-,         O #.%&&8"9.                        "

/   (             !   /   /   -  P      @  644&*%48 K44&4&'8  64K&*%44   /   B       .    G    @  %&44+#.K%+ 

 +  -    P      /   / G  - ,     @ +-P%&4K&K"     !          

 "

References # B+"4*)="G               #     / " 3 " 396*(==" #   ; G  9 -   . -   M" 4**)" Crop !     :3 #  "    /S "  T$U 

         -  ?E. N  /  P  # Y 5   " + ZM99"%&&K"2        0      !        Z       @ " $ # #     "  624K*(48)" + ! ;  @  . B    Z 9 G   G M" 4**%" M                   " #  154K4=(K%*" + U  7;/ .@"%&&="Z              ! "T #  /97%8)(%6K" + 5 92M Z"4*6K", X  



1671

      " #  76K=4(K==" @  7M 2GMM   5@ #"%&&*"- !      5                    " $  " = #101)68()=8" P Q #M  M-  2B

 @# šU  @" 4**6" .            # ##              regimes. -#   #168–169%46(%%K" P +  ;Y"4*=)"2                                 K  "  !"" $  "= #60%6)(%=&" 7 ! 92+ #7"4**&"                      "-#    #128446(4%="   G ; G    B B  -" %&&%" 2                        Y! $#"# "$ # #    " 5546*(4'&" B -ƒ  -+-  B; +G"4*'="-            1+!          "$  " = #68%K(%=" B  @+ Z9"4**%"-        "  #  154%*&(%**" B

  ## › Y"4**K"Z          œ          5  "-#    #151%4(K&" B ; 2P $9B P2"4*6'"          X          5  "$  "= #49%&(%=" 9  7 B  D " %&&=" 2    !    

        /  @  G  "$ # #   " 84K(4*" 97B D"%&&'"- !         /  @ G    %&    " 

    2548*(46*" 9[;B D99Z -"%&4&"2    

            ! in winter wheat.

    28K)'(K*)" M - .    - 9" 4*'*" .                      0 " $  "= #71'K)('86" / BP   9M  #7  M+   - 7" 4*=&"   X                    " = #  #   40%66(%=8"   #"4*)K"   !              " #  136 44'(4%K"   -9 G#@"4*'6"G   0  irrigation.   188=&8(=4&"  "4*'8"             

 "-#   #40K)4(K*4" - O"%&&="      !   

1672

;3<#. = #   !$ # >*'?'@B+CD'E?+F'EG>

                    "G. ;  N   @  #   - @ " @    5!7+  #M  7@ D"4*)8"/                        " 3 "334K6(466"  ! 7 #    # -   7 9 B . " 4**6"   

                        "

     16)*(*6"   -7M 9#"4**)"9                 "  #       $"  = #62)4)()%'" N GZB  @"4**8"-         1 "$  "= #86'6*('=="

Z .D --  !7 ;   M"4**'" -                      "K    $"    $ # #  123KK=(K8K" D  -2"4*)*"2         $      !             "   ! 9"     " %    1846(%4" O  @  B  D  D  - M D  @ O -  O " %&&8" M      ;,-   "K            $ # #   20 4)4(4)K" @  O

 GB  9"4*=4"2  !    root growth.  #  91%)&(%))" M   -N/9U