Pediatrics

Pediatrics

Pediatrics The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology Molly E. Band, MHS, PA-C*, Cynthia D’Alessandri-Silva, MD KEYWORDS  Pediatrics  Chronic kidney ...

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Pediatrics The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology Molly E. Band,

MHS, PA-C*,

Cynthia D’Alessandri-Silva,

MD

KEYWORDS  Pediatrics  Chronic kidney disease  Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)  Growth and nutrition KEY POINTS  The causes of chronic kidney disease in the pediatric population vary significantly from that of the adult population.  In addition to the medical complications of chronic kidney disease in the pediatric population, special attention should be paid to psychosocial and developmental issues that arise.  The period of transition of a pediatric patient with chronic kidney disease from Pediatric Nephrology to Adult Nephrology is a difficult time for both parents and patients.

INTRODUCTION

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a devastating disease that can occur at any age. There are particular challenges that arise in the pediatric population requiring the expertise of a pediatric nephrologist in the management of CKD. Specific complications that are prevalent in children with CKD include impaired growth, psychosocial adjustments of the children and their families, and other issues that are agespecific, including immunizations. There is much more knowledge available regarding the epidemiology of adult-onset CKD versus childhood-onset CKD. More research is required in pediatric CKD because this can aid in the early identification and diagnosis of CKD, aggressive treatment of the complications, as well as identification of (this keeps parallel structure) preventable risk factors in the progression of CKD.1,2 DEFINITION

In 2002, the National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF K/DOQI) established guidelines on CKD, divided into 5 categories

Disclosure: The authors have nothing to disclose. Pediatric Nephrology, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, 282 Washington Street, Hartford, CT 06106, USA * Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] Physician Assist Clin 1 (2016) 175–185 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpha.2015.09.005 physicianassistant.theclinics.com 2405-7991/16/$ – see front matter Ó 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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(Table 1).3 This classification system is applicable to children over 2 years of age, because the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) does not reach normal adult values until after 2 years of age. The criteria for CKD include the presence of kidney damage for greater than or equal to 3 months or a GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for greater than or equal to 3 months. Kidney damage is defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine, abnormalities seen on radiographic imaging studies, or abnormalities revealed on kidney biopsy testing. This definition is regardless of the pathologic cause of CKD.1,3 EPIDEMIOLOGY

Although extensive epidemiologic data are available for the adult population with CKD, little epidemiologic data are available for the pediatric population. This is possibly due in part to the historical absence of a standardized definition of CKD. In addition, estimating GFR becomes challenging in a child, as it varies based on age, gender, and body size.1,3 Most epidemiologic data that are available in pediatric patients come from endstage renal disease (ESRD) registries. In 2008, the prevalence of renal replacement therapy was estimated to be between 18 and 100 per million of children, aged 0 to 19 years.1 According to the 2014 US Renal Data System, there were 1161 children in 2012 that began ESRD care. The incidence of ESRD in the United States peaked in 2003 and has been slowly decreasing since 2008.4 There is a reported 10-year survival rate of 80% for adolescent-onset ESRD.5 The prevalence of CKD among pediatric patients is not known.5 There is a reported prevalence of CKD of 1.5 to 3.0 per 1,000,000 among children younger than 16 years of age.6 CAUSE

The cause of CKD in children is vastly different than those in adults. Congenital disorders are the primary cause of CKD in children, accounting for nearly half of all causes, including congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), genitourinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections, and hereditary nephropathies. Another prevalent cause of CKD in children is glomerulonephritis.1 The causes of CKD in children vary by age and race.1,5 CAKUT and hereditary nephropathies are more common in younger children, compared with glomerulonephritis, which is more common in children over the age of 12 years. African Americans and Table 1 Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease Stage

GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)

Definition

1

90

Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR

2

60–89

Mild reduction in GFR

3

30–59

Moderate reduction in GFR

4

15–29

Severe reduction in GFR

5

<15

Kidney failure

Data from Hogg RJ, Furth S, Portman R, et al. National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 2003;111:1416–21.

Pediatrics: The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology

Latinos have a higher incidence of CKD.5 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is 3 times more common in black patients than in Caucasian patients1 (Fig. 1). COMPLICATIONS Hematologic

Anemia is a known complication of CKD and is defined as hemoglobin (Hgb) levels less than 12.1 to 13.5 g/dL for boys and less than 11.4 to 11.5 g/dL for girls, for children ages 1 to 19 years.5,7 The most common cause of anemia in CKD is erythropoietin deficiency as a result of insufficient production by the diseased kidney, but other causes can include blood loss, iron deficiency, bone marrow suppression, and malnutrition, among others.5,6 The prevalence of anemia in children with CKD increases with the progression of CKD.5 The prevalence of anemia in children with stage 1 CKD is 31.2%, compared with 93.3% in stages 4 and 5 CKD.7 Anemia in children with CKD is managed with recombinant human erythropoiesisstimulating agents and iron supplementation. Iron supplementation can be given orally or parenterally. Oral iron therapy is dosed at 2 to 3 mg/kg/d of elemental iron, divided into 2 or 3 doses. Erythropoietin is administered subcutaneously at a dose of 30 to 300 units/kg/wk for an initial dose, and up to 60 to 600 units/kg/wk. The injection is given in 1, 2, or 3 doses per week.6 Many of the recommendations regarding erythropoietin use in children are extrapolated from adult data, as pediatric data are limited. There are risks and benefits to normalizing Hgb with recombinant human erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Reported benefits include improvement in cognitive function and scholastic performance, improvement in growth and nutrition, cardiovascular (CV) benefits, and decreased mortality.6,7 The risks include hypertension, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. To minimize the risks of epoetin (Epogen, Procrit), the NKF K/DOQI has suggested target Hgb levels of 11 to 12 g/dL.7 Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is very low in the general pediatric population.8 CKD in children, particularly children on dialysis, is a major risk factor for CV-related

Fig. 1. Causes of pediatric CKD. (Data from Harambat J, van Stralen KJ, Kim JJ, et al. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2012;27:363–73.)

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morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that CVD begins developing in early stages of CKD and increases promptly after initiation of dialysis. CVD is the most common cause of mortality in children with ESRD, and in adults with childhood onset of CKD.5,8,9 CV death rates are comparable in children receiving peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. In contrast, the risk of CV death is lower in transplant recipients.8 The cause of CV-related mortality varies greatly between adults with ESRD compared with children with CKD. Although coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure are the leading causes of CV-related mortality in adults, cardiac arrest is the most common cause of CV death in children with CKD. Additional causes of CV death in children with CKD include arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and cerebrovascular disease.8 The risk factors for development of CVD in children can be divided into 2 groups, including traditional risk factors and uremia-related risk factors.8,9 Traditional risk factors include hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Hypertension is the most common traditional risk factor for the development of CVD. Uncontrolled hypertension is more common in children with ESRD compared with earlier stages of CKD.10 Hypertension in a child is defined by an elevated blood pressure recording on at least 3 separate occasions, at least 1 week apart. Hypertension is determined by the child’s age, sex, and height percentiles. Hypertension is graded as prehypertension, stage I hypertension, stage II hypertension, and hypertensive urgency and emergency (Table 2).6 Obesity, dyslipidemia, and abnormal insulin and glucose metabolism increase after kidney transplantation.10 Although data are scarce, dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in children with CKD. Saland and colleagues11 described risk factors for dyslipidemia, which include reduced GFR, nephrotic range proteinuria, older age, and obesity.11 Uremia-related risk factors include volume overload, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, abnormalities in calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and hypoalbuminemia.8,10 These risk factors are more pertinent in patients with advanced CKD on maintenance dialysis, apart from anemia, which can be present in early CKD.10 Volume overload is commonly related to interdialytic weight gain and inability to achieve dry weight after dialysis.10 Volume overload is associated with increased rate of hypertension and structural and functional cardiac abnormalities, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).10 Anemia is prevalent and poorly controlled in pediatric patients with CKD despite the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation.8,10 Derangements in calcium-phosphorus metabolism, including hyperparathyroidism, are strong risk factors for progression of CVD. Hyperparathyroidism is common in pediatric patients with CKD and can contribute to the progression of LVH.8 Table 2 Grades of hypertension Grade

Definition

Prehypertension

Average systolic or diastolic pressure between the 90th and 95th percentile for age, sex, and height

Stage I hypertension

Average systolic or diastolic pressure greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height

Stage II hypertension

Average systolic or diastolic pressure more than 5 mm Hg greater than the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height

Hypertensive urgency and emergency

Average systolic or diastolic pressure more than 5 mm Hg greater than the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height AND clinical symptoms of headache, vomiting, seizures, or encephalopathy

Data from Whyte DA, Fine RN. Chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Rev 2008;29:335–41.

Pediatrics: The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology

LVH is the most common cardiac abnormality found in pediatric patients with CKD.8 LVH can develop in early stages of CKD and becomes more prevalent and severe as kidney function declines.8,10 Mitsnefes and colleagues12 revealed that eccentric LVH is the most common geometric pattern among children with CKD, over concentric LVH. Risk factors for progression of LVH include older age, higher baseline intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), and lower Hgb.12 The above-mentioned risks for CVD should be managed with prevention strategies and aggressive medical therapy. Management of CV risk in children with CKD includes avoidance of long-term dialysis. Avoidance of dialysis with pre-emptive kidney transplantation has been shown to reduce the risk for CVD in children.10 Other management techniques include aggressive management of hypertension, including treatment and avoidance of volume overload, treatment of anemia with iron therapy and erythropoiesis stimulating agents, and treatment of hyperparathyroidism.10,12 Growth and Nutrition

Reduced dietary intake, malnutrition, and impediment of growth are known complications of CKD in pediatric patients. Nutritional status is of such high importance in children because of the effects it has on growth, sexual and neurocognitive development. There are many differences between the nutritional requirements of children versus adults.13,14 Factors that affect nutrition in children with CKD include birth weight and gestational age, additional comorbidities, residual kidney function, presence of sodium wasting, acidosis, and anemia, among others.13 As discussed previously, one of the most common causes of CKD in children is kidney dysplasia associated with congenital abnormalities. With this, there are increased urinary sodium and water losses, which can cause failure to gain weight.13,15 Because of the complexities that surround nutritional management and requirements in children, nutritional status should be followed closely by the pediatrician, pediatric nephrologist, and a pediatric renal dietitian.13–15 There is not a consensus of the appropriate interval of nutritional assessment for children with CKD. The factors that should be taken into account when determining nutritional assessment and follow-up include the child’s age, stage of CKD, and presence or absence of growth failure. As part of a child’s nutritional assessment, recumbent length for children less than 2 years old, or standing height for children older than 2 years old, and weight should be obtained. These parameters will be used to plot and track along growth charts and can be used to calculate body mass index.13–15 Head circumference is another growth parameter that is important in children under 3 years of age. Children with CKD have been shown to have poor head growth, which can correlate to brain growth.14 Development and progression of oral and gross motor skills occur during the infancy period. However, acute and chronic illnesses can disrupt this normal development. Infants require close monitoring and follow-up because anorexia, vomiting, and altered taste sensation are common during this developmental stage.13,15 Additional challenges for infants with CKD include decreased appetite, early satiety, and delayed gastric emptying.15 In addition, growth and developmental deficits during infancy may not fully improve with intervention. Thus, prevention and early intervention are prudent.14 Such interventions include enteral feeding with a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube which can help maintain normal growth in children with CKD and have the potential to allow for catch-up growth.13 On the other end of the spectrum, obesity is an emerging problem in children with CKD, particularly after kidney transplantation. Several factors influence this, including treatment with steroids. As the use of steroid-sparing protocols begin to increase, it will be interesting to see if the rates of obesity are affected.13

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Bone and Mineral Disorders

As CKD progresses, mineral metabolism is significantly affected, termed chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This term encompasses secondary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, disorders of vitamin D metabolism, hyperphosphatemia, and disorders of calcium.16,17 CKD poses several risk factors for vitamin deficiency, which include increased urinary losses of vitamin D–binding protein and albumin and decreased intake seen with dietary restrictions.18 In early stages of CKD, there is a decrease in circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D). In turn, this leads to impaired intestinal absorption of calcium and subsequent hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is a powerful stimulant for the release of PTH, causing an increase in serum PTH and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The elevated level of PTH helps to maintain normocalcemia by releasing calcium from bone. With this resorption of bone, there is an increase in the amount of phosphate that needs to be excreted. However, as CKD progresses, there is a decrease in functional nephrons, causing hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia is another stimulator for PTH release, causing worsening of secondary hyperparathyroidism.16,17 The consequences of CKD-MBD include poor growth, bony deformities, and fractures.16 Targeted therapy for CKD-MBD includes treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency become paramount in CKD-MBD. K/DOQI has set guidelines for the repletion of vitamin D in patients with CKD (Table 3).19 Important notice should also be taken for phosphorus control. Various mechanisms for treatment and prevention of hyperphosphatemia exist and include dietary restrictions and the use of phosphate binders. Patients and parents should receive individualized dietary counseling on phosphorus restrictions. Phosphorus binders work by binding dietary phosphorus in the gastrointestinal tract allowing for elimination via fecal material. There are several formulations of phosphorus binders, including aluminum-containing, magnesium-containing, calcium-based, and non-calcium-based binders. Aluminum-containing phosphorus binders are used sparingly because of the known side effects, including encephalopathy that can be seen with decreased GFR. Magnesium-containing phosphorus binders are used infrequently, because they are not as effective. Calcium-containing phosphorus binders are used commonly and include calcium carbonate and calcium acetate. If hypercalcemia becomes a concern, sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel) and sevelamer carbonate (Renvela) can be used for phosphorus binding. These agents do not contain calcium, magnesium, or aluminum.17 PATHOGENESIS/PROGRESSION

The progression of CKD is influenced by multiple factors, including underlying disease and severity of injury present on presentation, among others.1,5 Specifically for children Table 3 Vitamin D repletion Serum 25 (OH)D Level (ng/mL)

Vitamin D Dose (IU)

<5

8000 daily for 4 wk, followed by 4000 daily for 8 wk

5–15

4000 daily for 12 wk

16–30

2000 daily for 12 wk

Data from KDOQI Work Group. KDIGO Clinical practice guideline for nutrition in children with CKD: 2008 update. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;53:S1–123.

Pediatrics: The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology

with CKD, time periods of rapid growth increase the filtration demands of the kidneys. Thus, large increases in body mass during infancy and puberty can result in deterioration of kidney function. In addition to periods of rapid growth, acute kidney injury can also affect the progression of CKD. Injuries include infections or episodes of pyelonephritis, periods of dehydration, and nephrotoxic drugs. Other influences include the duration of disease, initiation of therapy, hypertension, and proteinuria.5 Data from the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies Registry (NAPRTCS) revealed that the rate of progression of CKD to ESRD was inversely proportional to baseline GFR. In addition, NAPRTCS revealed that pediatric patients with CKD stages 2 to 3 progressed to ESRD at a rate of 17% at 1 year, and 39% at 3 years.2 Interventions such as the judicious use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for hypertension and proteinuria have been shown to decrease the rate of progression of disease in children, specifically with primary glomerulopathies or renal hypoplasia.5 Children with a primary congenital kidney disorder as the cause of their CKD show a slower progression of CKD when compared with children with glomerulonephritis.1,2 Novak and colleagues2 studied the rate of progression of kidney disease to ESRD in children with VUR to children with other causes of CKD. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts: those with VUR as a cause of CKD, those with congenital kidney aplasia, hypoplasia, or dysplasia as a cause of CKD, and those with CKD due to all other causes. This retrospective cohort study using data from NAPRTCS revealed that children with VUR as a cause for their CKD had a slower rate of progression to ESRD when compared with patients with renal aplasia and all other causes of CKD. This study also revealed that children with older age, more advanced stages of CKD, and a history of urinary tract infections were at risk for progression of CKD to ESRD.2 IMMUNIZATIONS

Immunizations are vital in decreasing the risk of vaccine-preventable diseases in children. Children with CKD on conservative therapy, those requiring dialysis (both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), and those who have received kidney transplantation are at a higher risk for infection compared with healthy children.20,21 In the aforementioned patient population, infections have significant consequences, including increased morbidity and mortality, increased hospitalization rates, and increased medical, social, and economic costs.21 There are several factors that contribute to the greater infection risk in children with CKD. For patients who carry a diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome, urinary losses of complement pathway factors contribute to an increased infection risk. In addition to nephrotic syndrome, other additional kidney diseases are treated with immunosuppressive agents, adding to this risk. Multiple other co-morbidities influence the infection risk profile of patients with CKD such as malnutrition and uremia. Dialysis catheters, both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, are associated with increased risk for bacteremia, exit-site infections, or peritonitis.21 In addition, children undergoing dialysis require frequent hepatitis B antibody titers, as hepatitis B antibodies are removed with dialysis.5,6 When children with CKD are preparing for kidney transplantation, important notice must be taken to the child’s immunization status. If possible, immunizations should be completed before kidney transplantation because live vaccines are contraindicated after transplant. Common live vaccinations include LAIV (live, attenuated influenza vaccine), MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine, and VAR (varicella) vaccine. Children who have not completed their live vaccine schedule before transplantation, they are susceptible to contracting measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. Some

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transplant centers will accelerate the immunization schedule before transplantation for optimal protection. Discussion among the primary pediatrician, pediatric nephrologist, and transplant team is crucial.5,6 It is important for pediatric primary care providers and subspecialists to be knowledgeable on the guidelines for vaccinating both healthy children and those children with specific medical conditions. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics provide the recommended immunization schedule for healthy children, which is updated annually, most recently in 2015. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html.20 In addition, the CDC provides vaccination guidelines for patients with CKD and those on dialysis.21 The most recent recommendations from the CDC ACIP were published in 2012.22,23 QUALITY OF LIFE

Caregivers of children with chronic illnesses, including CKD, often have many roles and responsibilities. There are significant burdens, including time, financial, and emotional struggles that families and caregivers experience. Overall, more research is needed to identify caregiver struggles for children with chronic illnesses. Tong and colleagues24 performed 20 interviews of caregivers for children with CKD. This group highlighted 4 main themes when interviewing caregivers of children with CKD, including absorbing the clinical environment, medicalizing parenting, disruption of family norms, and coping strategies. Although this study was small, the findings were in line with other reviews. This study revealed that caregivers had difficulty understanding the diagnosis, including the lifelong nature of CKD. Caregivers often had the responsibility of performing medical interventions, such as injections and dialysis. There was often a disruption in normal family dynamics, affecting employment, finances, and social life. There also tended to be tension between spouses revolving around guilt and blame. Some families experienced difficulty giving appropriate attention to siblings of children with CKD. This study also identified that families of children with CKD sought coping through both internal and external avenues.24 Gerson and colleagues25 compared the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with CKD with their healthy cohorts. This study comprised 402 patients, aged 2 to 16, with mild to moderate CKD. This study provided evidence that children with mild to moderate CKD had poorer HRQoL when compared with healthy children, including poorer physical, social, emotional, and school functioning. The authors of this study hypothesized that poorer school function was related to school days missed for medical visits or cognitive functioning, as it relates to worsening kidney function. The results of this study did not reveal an association with the severity of CKD and HRQoL impairment. Surprisingly, patients who have been diagnosed with CKD for a longer period of time were reported via parent feedback to have better physical and emotional functioning, when compared with patients who had CKD for less time. This study also revealed that both youth with mild to moderate CKD and their parents reported that short stature was associated with a negative impact on overall quality of life. Last, this study revealed that advanced maternal education with greater than 16 years of education was associated with higher HRQoL scores, when compared with children whose mother had less than a high school education.25

Pediatrics: The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology

TRANSITION

Transition and transfer of care from pediatric to adult care for patients with CKD and those who have received kidney transplantation pose unique challenges. This time period requires seamless and continuous care with appropriate communication between pediatric and adult teams. This process has recently been examined more closely for several reasons, including the increased rate of young adult patient survival with CKD. Adolescence is an age group that is at risk for noncompliance during the time of transition from pediatric to adult care, for reasons including physical, psychological, and sexual changes during this period.26 Adolescents can exhibit rebellious behavior and experimentation as they develop more independence. When compared with younger children, adolescents have lower 5-year survival rates of kidney transplants.27 Another challenge is that the adult nephrologist may be less familiar with the common causes of CKD in pediatric patients, including hereditary conditions and congenital abnormalities.26 The International Society of Nephrology and the International Pediatric Nephrology Association have developed a consensus statement outlining recommendations on how providers should help patients achieve transfer of care from pediatrics to adult nephrology.26 This consensus statement recommends that the transition process be personalized, begin early in adolescence, and happen in a gradual manner. The transition plan should be developmentally and intellectually appropriate for each patient. The timing of transition should be done when the patient is in a stable period without crises, and after completion of school. The consensus statement also recommends that the patient and family be seen together by pediatric and adult teams before completion of transfer of care.26 Harden and colleagues27 developed an integrated transition clinic for young adults with CKD for the many reasons discussed above. In this transition clinic, patients aged 15 to 18 years are seen jointly by both pediatric and adult teams until transfer of care is deemed appropriate as it relates to educational, employment, and social development. The outcomes of this transition clinic showed decreased rate of transplant failure and decreased rate of late acute rejection.27 An optimal transition period and transfer of care should provide uninterrupted care and be developmentally appropriate.28 SUMMARY

Children with CKD require the expertise of a pediatric nephrology team, including providers, nursing staff, social work, dietitians, and transplant team. It is also important for the pediatric nephrology team to work closely with the child’s pediatrician to ensure the needs of the child are met. This multidisciplinary team should work closely together to manage not only the child’s CKD but also the comorbidities that accompany CKD. As these children transition into adulthood, it is also important for adult nephrologists to be aware of the various causes of pediatric CKD, including congenital and hereditary disorders. REFERENCES

1. Harambat J, van Stralen KJ, Kim JJ, et al. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2012;27:363–73. 2. Novak TE, Mathews R, Martz K, et al. Progression of chronic kidney disease in children with vesicoureteral reflux: the North American Pediatric Renal Trials Collaborative Studies Database. J Urol 2009;182:1678–82.

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3. Hogg RJ, Furth S, Portman R, et al. National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 2003;111:1416–21. 4. United States Renal Data System (USRDS). Pediatric ESRD. Chapter 7. 2014. 5. Massengill SF, Ferris M. Chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents. Pediatr Rev 2014;35:16–29. 6. Whyte DA, Fine RN. Chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Rev 2008;29: 335–41. 7. Keithi-Reddy SR, Singh AK. Hemoglobin target in chronic kidney disease: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Nephrol 2009;24:431–4. 8. Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;23:578–85. 9. Shroff R, Degi A, Kerti A, et al. Cardiovascular risk assessment in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2013;28:875–84. 10. Wilson AC, Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular disease in CKD in children: update on risk factors, risk assessment, and management. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;54(2): 345–60. 11. Saland JM, Pierce CB, Mifsnefes MM, et al. Dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2010;78:1154–63. 12. Mitsnefes MM, Kimball TR, Kartal J, et al. Progression of left ventricular hypertrophy in children with early chronic kidney disease: 2-year follow-up study. J Pediatr 2006;149:671–5. 13. Rees L, Jones H. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2013;28:527–36. 14. Foster BJ, Leonard MB. Measuring nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:801–14. 15. Secker D. Nutrition management of chronic kidney disease in the pediatric patient. In: Byham-Gray L, Stover J, Wisen K, editors. A clinical guide to nutrition care in kidney disease. 2nd edition. 2013. p. 157–88. 16. Wesseling-Perry K. Bone disease in pediatric chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2013;28:569–76. 17. Norwood K. Chronic kidney disease: mineral and bone disorders. In: Byham-Gray L, Stover J, Wisen K, editors. A clinical guide to nutrition care in kidney disease. 2nd edition. Chicago, IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2013. p. 239–61. 18. Kalkwarf HJ, Denburg MR, Strife CF, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is common in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2012;81:690–7. 19. KDOQI Work Group. KDIGO Clinical practice guideline for nutrition in children with CKD: 2008 update. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;53:S1–123. 20. Center for Disease Control Recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0-18. Chicago, IL: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2015. 21. Neu AM. Immunizations in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2012;27:1257–63. 22. Esposito S, Mastrolia MV, Prada E, et al. Vaccine administration in children with chronic kidney disease. Vaccine 2014;13:6601–6. 23. Guidelines for vaccinating kidney dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease. Summarized from Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). December 2012. 24. Tong A, Lowe A, Sainsbury P, et al. Parental perspectives on caring for a child with chronic kidney disease: an in-depth interview study. Child Care Health Dev 2010;36:549–57.

Pediatrics: The Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology

25. Gerson AC, Wentz A, Abraham AG, et al. Health-related quality of life of children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Pediatrics 2010;125:e349–57. 26. Watson AR, Harden PN, Ferris ME, et al. Transition from pediatric to adult renal services: a consensus statement by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (IPNA). Kidney Int 2011;80:704–7. 27. Harden PN, Walsh G, Bandler N, et al. Bridging the gap: an integrated paediatric to adult clinical service for young adults with kidney failure. BMJ 2012;344:1–8. 28. American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Practitioners, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. A consensus statement on health care transition for young adults with special health care needs. Pediatrics 2002;110:1304–6.

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