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# The pig-iron and iron-ore industry in 1909

## The pig-iron and iron-ore industry in 1909

N{YFI(S A N D 27I C O M M E N T S . l r e a t n ] e n t a c q u i r e d by heat L,F 1,riling wouhJ be eliminated, o r l a r g e l y so, and the t ...

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N{YFI(S

A N D

27I

C O M M E N T S .

l r e a t n ] e n t a c q u i r e d by heat L,F 1,riling wouhJ be eliminated, o r l a r g e l y so, and the t r u e qualit 3 ,~f the steel n m d e apparenl. ']'hus it will be seen t h a t the d e t e r m i n a i i , m o f the critical points in steel has a l r e a d y been used as pm-t {,f tl]e spccificati(}ns for c o m mercial steels. ]i] w h a t has been l}lescl]te,l here, there is no claim to o r i g i n a l i t y except possibly tile n i a l m e r {>f lhe l o c a t i o n o f the p o i n t s d and d' c o r r e s p o n d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y to the end o f .\c a and A r ~ a n d the a r r a n g e m e n ~ o f the Sl}ecimen and neutral. 27

] IG. 72

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I-I I 7 T I

. . . . . . . . . .

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II ~,I l l i ' , ] g ] l l [ l l l fill ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I II ! I.I'I~"T'I I a l I I [ [ I I I I~t,I I'G IAtl .......... ' c-,J J L!

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N o w h e r e has the a u t h o r seen 1}ublished c u r v e s s h o w i n g such m a r k e d r e g u l a r i t y a n d cllaraclerislics as those exhibited with this paper. "]'his r e g u l a r i t y m i g h t 1,e attril)uted to the un, ifo,rm h e a t i n o o f o u r electric f u r l m c e and the a r r a n g e m e n t o f the specimen a n d neutral. All this w o r k has been &,he at the w o r k s o f T h e C a r p e n t e r Steel Co., R e a d i n g , Pa., with llle valuable assislance ~,f Mr. Ben. \ V h i t e a n d Mr. J. l l . P a r k e r . ']'he aulh()1" xxishes l{) here e x p r e s s his t h a n k s to l},Jih lhvbe Remlemell and the several ,~thers wh{> h a x c l.:indlv aided i~ enal}ling ihis 1}reseutaliou to be m a d e . THE

PIG-IRON

AND

IRON-ORE

INDUSTRY

IN

i 9 o 9.

GREAT L~PrOVEX~:XT rx coNmrlor~s. There was a wonderful revival in the iron industry in the United States in I9O9, so that the producti()N {,f hmh ir(,ll ()re and pig-iron will nearly reach that of I9O7, the year of maximum (mtput up to the present time. Estimates made by .E.C. Harder, of the United States Geological Survey, indicate an increa:e in ],}o,q c)f m~}rc than 9400.oo0 tons ~)f pig-

27.+2

~'()'11.:>; . \ N I ) (

()M.\IEX'I'S.

ir(,u aml m,)rc t h a u tS,ooo,oo() l,)Us <)f H(,n ,,re. T h e filth)wing table s h o w s lilt' productioll ill Iong tOllS O( iron ()re alld p i g - i r o n in I9O 7 a n d I9O8 a n d the e s t i m a t e d l)r,)ducti(m for i!.ao<~. T h c figurc~ s h o w i n g tile 1)roduction ~)f ir()n ore in 19o7 a n d I9O8 xxere c o m p i l e d liy tile U n i t e d S t a t e s Geological Stlrvey; t h o s e for I)ig-ir, m x~,:l'c c()mllih'd by t h e A m e r i c a n I r o n a n d Steel : \ s s o c i a t i o n . "File e s t i m a t e s (if tile 1)r()duct[()n in I9o<) were m a d e by exanlil]ing v a r i o u s t r a d e j o u r n a l s alld c o m p a r i n g activities ill t h e v a r i o u s districts with t h o s e (if previou< years. I)RHIIUCTh)N

(IF IR()N

()l-:l{ ,',Xl)

I (X-)~ .\ N I) I':HTI :k[ \ T E l )

PIG IR{ )N IN I'R()I)I "( l ' b ) N

F I l E I N I T H * STATES IN IN I ! XX), I N I.ON(; TiINS. ] {tOuR.

IHI)7. l)ig-ir,)u .................... "5,78J,3<~1 I r o n ()re- Lal, c .%ul)eri()r d{stl-ict 4I,(i38,744 Iron ()rc---c\lal);una . . . . . . . . . 4.o3().45.~ ]roll , i f ' c - - N e w "~'()rl.:. . . . . . . . 1.375,o2o [r()ll

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it, ill

increased

with

slight

I]llClllat{,)ll-,

t h r ( m g h o u ( t])c 3car. In lcehruarx arid in April the liroducti,)n was slightly less t h a n in thc l)rccctling lll,))/ih';, 1)tll <'Nee]It ill t h e s e two n l o m h s tile increase w a s s t e m h . T h e f o l h ) u i l ) £ table ,h(,~> thv l ) l ' , ' ( h l c l i ' ) l l ('t p i g - i r o n d u r i n g lhe fh-st hail- (,f ](X)o ;is e s t h u a l c d 1)y !]t~ ])csl a u t h , , r i l i c , : I'r, u h l , I i , ~

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.\.uleric;H) lr()u :Hid Sl,.cl ~..,c,ci;~IL)u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [mu~ ./.go ( N e w "/,)rl,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /m,*~ T~od," lgc;'/,'a' ~ ( l c ' , , h m , l ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

/~liq

[,'II.C

11,O22..~4(;

)o.&yo.[()7 m,82o.o5o

T h c '.'stilll;/i<'- ,)l: tilt: / ,;/1 ./5.(' ,tl](l lilt' /1"<,1l "]l'dd(" /x'F'r'/('gt' d o i]()t c]larcoa[ pig ir(m. T h e l m m .I0,' gi~es the f,)lh)~ing m ( m l h l y 1)roducti()n (if ct,kc anti a n l h r a c i l c pig-ir(m in h m g it)u> l-r,,m J u l y I tel D e c e m b e r ~. I9(×): July. 2, I(1:1,43[ ; A u g u s ( , 2,:.,4N,!),3o : Sel)lCl)H)cr, 2,3,y N o v e m b e r I, a c c o r d i n g 1() tile / r , m .I.m'. lhc m m d u ' r had incr<'ascd t() :go<) a n d hy D e c e m h e r ) (o 3r4. illt']u(le

H~()N

ONK

[ ' h c h)crca>.c hl the iH'oductic,1)in- ir,)u (,re, a h h o u o h d i s t r i h u t c d over the eutire c o u n t r y , was g r e a t e r l)rol)orli,)mdly in the L a k e S u p e r i o r district than elsewhere. T h e lake ShilnUCntS ,if l.ake S u p e r i o r iron ore, a c c o r d i n g to (he / f o r t "/'vddc 1¢('z'/c¢¢. anlountcd hy [)ccclnbcr I it) ,4I,I64,359 long t o n . , which will i)rol)ahly he i n c r e a s e d to a b o u t 41,5oo, ooo lollg tolls by J a n u a r y ~, iOEo, as coral)areal i , a l()ta] (if 25,427,094 l o n g t o n s d u r i n g I0O8 and 41,29o,7o9 long (ous d u r i n g J9o7. T h e lake s h i p m e n t s for IOO9, however,

carlnot

lie

{;tI,:en

;t-

;i I]ie~lSlll-t > ()1" I ! l e

pr()(hlcti()ll,

%]ilcc t h e

stock

left

at the m i n e s h) (he I.ake SUllcrio)" district at the end o f [ 0 o g w a s g r e a t e r hy several millic)n tr/ns t h a n it h a d been for st)me y e a r s past, a m o u n t i n g to ..'~,251,5"71 long' /(ills, as c()Ii/])arc([ with -,75.{,3.:L~; long tolls :it tile e n d o[ I907. T h e 1)rt)ducti, ul in N e w Y,,rk will 1)rol)ahly he s o m e w h a t ,..,reatqr than

XI)'II,~S

_\.Nit

27.3

t I~M*II.;NiI'b.

in I9O7, the record year; that in .\lal,ama will 1)ro]mbly be about the same as in 19o7. By taking the production in these Ihree districts as a basis and comparing it with the production in xari(uls parts of the country in previous years the above estimate of the t~,tal irou-~re production i~ r9O9 has been obtained. PRODUCTION

OF

COPPER

A RI~CORD-BblEAI'/-]N(;

I N ~9o9.

YI'L\I,~.

Statistics and cstimatcs rceci\c,1 by ~l,c k hired States G~ological Survey from all plants k n o ~ n t~, product b[islcr Col}per fronl domestic ores and from all lake mim's indicate thai the copper oulput frolu mines in the United States in I0O9 surpassed all prcviou> records. The figures, which have been colh'ctcd by It. G. I'utler, of the Survey, represent the actual pr, Mucti, m el each c~,mpany for eleven lnonths aud include an estimate of its 1)ccemb,:r ~,utpnt. The November figures for a few companies were not available and lhesc companies furnished estimates for the last t~o months ,,f the \ c a r Ace,~l-dillg to the statistics and estimates received 111e output ,~f 1,fisl~q and lake copper u a s 1,II7,8oo,ooo pounds, as against 942,57o,721 potlnds in 1~8. au increase of over 18 per cent. This not only exceeds; the illcl'¢':tsc tlf any previous year but it is considerably greater than the I~>t;i] 3eally increase ~ince ]9o 4. OUTPUT

OF I , E A D [ N G

CI~PL't I,: L'ROIIUCINt;

STATES.

It is imp~,ssihh' now t,~ giw' ngures that represent aceurat~.l 5 the distribution of the output among the Slate', of origin, hut a few general statements may be positively made c,mccrning the leading c,~plmr-producing States. Montana shows a large i~wrease, again takillg first rank, a place lost to Arizona in I9o 7. The production in Montana will nearly equal or will possibly exceed the State's previous record output, 3~4,75o,oo0 pounds, made in 19o5. Ari×ona holds second place, with a slight increase o v e r the 289,523,o00 l~oUnds produced in J9o8. Michigan also exceeded the 19o8 production, 222,299,000 pound,. I.argc g g t i l l S w e r e made by Lliah and Nevada, and California also increased its output considerably. ],:EIq N ED C~ )I'PER.

Statistics showing the output ,,f rcthled copper by plants in the United States are not now c¢)llecte(l by the (;cological Survey. Figures published by the Copper Producers' Associati(m indicate thai the production of marketable copper from all sources, doineslic and fortign, for the first eleven months of 19O9 will exceed 1,4oo,oo,o,~x), as againsl I,I61,176,o85 pounds in 19o8. Statistics showing domestic deliw,ries for the first eleven months of the year, as given by the Copper ]'reducers' Ass~ciation, indicate a consumption of copper in lhe United States considerably greater than the previous record consumptio~--682,ooo,ooq pounds, in 1_0o6. l~iX P O R T S .

Estimates based on figures fc,r the first eleven months, published by the Bureau of Statistics and also by lhe Copper Producers' Association, indicate that the exports of copper will surpass hy several million pounds the exports for I0O8--66L876.I27 p~,unds. I ,\I POR'I S.

According to the Bureau of Statistics, imports of pigs, bars, ingots, plates, and old copper for the first eleven months amounted to 213,I00,28I pounds, and the copper content of ore matte and regulus imported amounted