Monitoring requirements and objectives (based on data from a U.N. report on the health of the oceans) are described within the context of an interface-flux model which defines zones of human-ocean interaction. Biogeochemical cycles are also considered, and classes of contaminants are treated separately. Inst. for Phys. Oceanogr., Univ. of Copenhagen, Haraldsgade 6, 2200 Copenhagen, N. Denmark. (gsb) 86:7109 Olsson, Mats and Lars Reuterggtrdh, 1986. DDT and PCB pollution trends in the Swedish aquatic environment. Ambio, 15(2): 103-109. 86:7110 Zaitsev, Yu.P., 1986. Contourobionts in ocean monitoring. Environ. Monit. Assessment, 7(1):31-38.
The boundaries where the ocean interfaces with the atmosphere, rivers, and shores (rocky, sandy, or muddy) are inhabited by communities (contourobionts) which, by nature of their abundance and vulnerability to anthropogenic effects, provide a potentially important tool for integrated global ocean monitoring of marine impacts. A.O. Kovalevsky Inst. of the Southern Seas, Akad. of Sci., Ukraine, USSR. (gsb)
F260. Resources, management, economics 86:7111 Allen, P.M. and J.M. McGlade, 1986. Dynamics of discovery and exploitation: the case of the Scotian Shelf groundfish fisheries. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 43(6):1187-1200. The bases and shortcomings of the current models used in fisheries management are briefly examined. Significant results include the importance of calibration in providing models of relevance to the real world; the out of phase relationship between abundance and the ease with which fishermen locate a highly sought species and its converse; the importance of information exchange in defining the attractivity of a particular fishing zone to different fleets and the ability of the model to take into account coded information, misinformation, spying and lying; and the fact that models based on global principles, such as 'optimal efficiency' or 'maximum profit,' are clearly of dubious relevance to the real world. Chimie-Physique II, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
OLR (1986)33 (12)
86:7112 Anonymous, 1986. How to save the whale. Economist, 299(7449): 16-17. The ban on commercial killing of whales 'has failed because the commission is as toothless as a blue whale.' The author suggests that the way to save whales is through ownership. If the IWC were owners in perpetuity of the world's whales, they could determine a safe harvest limit, donate some to subsistence whalers and then auction the remainder to the highest bidders. Ownership would give the IWC legal property rights, making enforcement easier, and proceeds from the auction would support effective stock monitoring and policing. (llt) 86:7113 Cherfas, Jeremy, 1986. What price whales? New Scient., 110(1511):36-40.
The history of whaling and of the International Whaling Commission is reviewed. Why do the member nations spurn the decisions of the very body they created? How ridiculous is an institution that makes rules which any member may legally violate by filing a protest? The whaling industry is a case study of the 'tragedy of the commons.' (At its peak in 1931, the annual whaling take was 2.5 million tons; in 1979 it was less than a tenth of that.) But powerful economic arguments for ravishing a commons are also outlined here. The only cure--invest a World Whaling Authority with ownership of the whales which would let out quotas to high bidders and spend revenues on monitoring and conservation activities. Includes a sidebar: The sorry history of whaling. (fcs) 86:7114 Cycon, D.E., 1986. Managing fisheries in developing nations: a plea for appropriate development. Nat. Resour. J., 26(1):1-14.
The exclusive economic zone concept extends the developing nations' scope of national authority and requires that they choose among available policy and institutional options for managing their living marine resources. Adapting western-oriented management theory and practice to developing nations is problematical for many reasons, including their use of artisanal fishing (using small craft powered by oars, sails, or small engines). Harvesting the maximum social and economic benefits offered by the extended coastal zone requires that developing nations balance the objectives of national growth and local need in ways that are discussed here. MPOM, WHOI, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. (wbg)